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Measurement of Ultraviolet Exposure in Epidemiological Studies of Skin and Skin Cancers

Reflectance Confocal Microscopy for In Vivo Skin Imaging

Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolaevulinic acid, dimethylsulfoxide and curettage in basal cell carcinoma

Sensitivity to ultraviolet B is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma in a Mediterranean population

Sunbed radiation provokes cutaneous vitamin D synthesis in humans

Algorithm for in vitro Sun Protection Factor based on transmission spectrum

Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin CSun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

A study to determine the efficacy of a novel handheld light-emitting diode device in the treatment of photoaged skin

Effects of Coccoloba uvifera L. on UV-stimulated melanocytes

Photodynamic therapy: treatment of choice for actinic cheilitis ?

Ultraviolet A induces transport of compatible organic osmolytes in human dermal fibroblasts

UV-induced DNA damage initiates release of MMP-1 in human skin

Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy

Acute exposure of human skin to ultraviolet or infrared radiation or heat stimuli increases mast cell numbers and tryptase expression in human skin in vivo

The α-melanocyte stimulating hormone-related tripeptide K(D)PT stimulates human hair follicle pigmentation in situ under proinflammatory conditions

Image analysis of skin colour using independent component analysis and its application to melanin pigmentation analysis

Spectral uniformity: a new index of broad spectrum (UVA) protection

Evaluation of the effect of Thai breadfruit's heartwood extract on melanogenesis-inhibitory and antioxidation activities

Overview of cosmetic dermatological approach for photoaging - Y. Funasaka

Melanoma risk factors include insecticides and occupational exposures

Oral isotretinoin in photoaging: clinical and histopathological evidence of efficacy of an off-label indication

Population reference intervals for minimal erythemal doses in monochromator phototesting

Tanning as an addictive behavior: a literature review

Feasibility and accuracy of a newly developed hand-held device with a flat-type fluorescent lamp for measuring the minimal erythema dose for narrow-band UVB therapy

Precise determination of the erythema response of human skin to ultraviolet radiation and quantification of effects of protectors

In vitro evaluation of the cutaneous penetration of sprayable sunscreen emulsions with high concentrations of UV filters

In vitro evaluation of the cutaneous penetration of sprayable sunscreen emulsions with high concentrations of UV filters

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International Journal of Cosmetic Science, Volume 31 Issue 4, Pages 279 – 292 (L. Durand, N. Habran†, V. Henschel and K. Amighi)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible penetration through human skin of organic and inorganic filters contained in sunscreen emulsions packaged in aerosol cans, using an in vitro method. Experiments were carried out on two different types of emulsion: W/Si and W/O. This study was conducted using static diffusion cells (Franz cells). The determination of organic UV filters [Methylene Bis Benzotriazolyl Tetramethylbutylphenol (MBBT); Bis-Ethylhexyloxyphenol Methoxyphenyl Triazine (BEMT); Diethylamino Hydroxybenzoyl Hexyl Benzoate (DHHB); Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate (EMC); and 2-Ethylhexyl Dimethyl PABA (ED-PABA)] was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Therefore, it was important to develop a single analytical method for the quantification of the five organic filters with the aim of facilitating the experiment. The determination of inorganic filters [titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO)] was performed using an emission spectrometric analysis method (ICP-OES). The HPLC and ICP-OES methods were validated. After a penetration test of 24 h duration, the results showed very low penetration only for two of the organic filters (maximum penetration of 1.21 μg cm−2 h−1 for EMC and 0.14 μg cm−2 h−1 for MBBT) and no penetration for the inorganic filters. Moreover, more than 50% of each sunscreen agent stayed on the surface on the skin. These results are consistent with those in the literature that presents similar experiments. This study showed that the sprayable sunscreen products developed, which contained high concentrations of UV filters, presented a low level of skin penetration.

Precise determination of the erythema response of human skin to ultraviolet radiation and quantification of effects of protectors

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Precise determination of the erythema response of human skin to ultraviolet radiation and quantification of effects of protectors - Zachary R. Healy, Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova, Scott L. Wehage, Richard E. Thompson, Jed W. Fahey & Paul Talalay

La protection de la peau contre les UV peut être déterminée en mesurant la modification de l’indice érythémateux à l’aide d’un chromamètre.

Background: We describe highly reproducible methods for quantifying the erythema response of precisely selected areas (spots) of human skin to graded doses of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). These methods have permitted evaluation of the efficacy of protectors, such as sulforaphane from crucifers, that defend cells through induction of cytoprotective (phase 2) genes.

Methods: Spots on the back were precisely located by opaque, adhesive, vinyl templates provided with 16 circular, 2.0 cm diameter occludable windows. Doses (100–800 mJ/cm2) of narrow-band (311 nm) UVR were administered, and the erythema index (a*) was measured with a chromometer on treated and control areas, before and after radiation.

Results: Daily variations in basal a* values of each spot were much smaller than the differences of a* values among spots of one individual, or those of corresponding spots among different individuals. The increments in erythema responses to UVR (Δa*) were similar despite large variations of basal a* of spots. The most appropriate measure of UVR-evoked erythema is therefore the Δa* value for each spot, which is an independent observational entity. Δa* was proportional to UVR dose, and independent of spot location. To evaluate effectiveness of protectors against UVR damage we paired horizontally adjacent spots for treatment and controls. Vertical or random spot pairing did not provide significantly higher consistency. Protective efficacy against UVR erythema is appropriately expressed as percent reduction in Δa* values upon treatment with inducers.

Conclusions: The protection of skin against UVR damage can be quantified precisely from changes in erythema index (Δa*) obtained with a chromometer.

Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine Volume 25 Issue 1, Pages 45 – 50

Feasibility and accuracy of a newly developed hand-held device with a flat-type fluorescent lamp for measuring the minimal erythema dose for narrow-band UVB therapy

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Feasibility and accuracy of a newly developed hand-held device with a flat-type fluorescent lamp for measuring the minimal erythema dose for narrow-band UVB therapy - Akimichi Morita, Yoichi Shintani, Emi Nishida, Hiroshi Kato, Hisashi Yoshida, Maki Minamoto, Yuji Yamaguchi & Akira Maeda

Une nouvelle lampe délivrant de l’UVB a été testée en vue de mesurer, avec succès, la MED.

Background: Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) for the treatment of refractory skin diseases, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, requires an adequate irradiation protocol based on the minimal erythema dose (MED) to establish an optimal dosage schedule. Although MED can be measured using a systemic-type irradiation unit, there are difficulties associated with this device. There is no standardized device available to determine the MED for NB-UVB. Here, we compared a conventional device with a newly developed device for measuring MED.

Method: MED was measured in 16 psoriasis patients using both a conventional measuring device and the newly developed device, which comprised a hand-held NB-UVB (311–313 nm) flat-type fluorescent lamp with neutral density filters having different transmittances ranging from 10% to 90%. This device was designed to be stably maintained on the skin surface and to provide a highly accurate measurement with only one UV irradiation exposure while also preventing UV radiation from leaking to nonirradiated areas.

Results: The MED values obtained from each patient were the same using both devices.

Conclusion: One-time irradiation using the new hand-held device with the NB-UVB flat-type fluorescent lamp is feasible and accurate for determining the MED to use in calculating the UV irradiation treatment dose.

Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine Volume 25 Issue 1, Pages 41 – 44

Tanning as an addictive behavior: a literature review

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Tanning as an addictive behavior: a literature review -Bridgit V. Nolan, Sarah L. Taylor, Anthony Liguori & Steven R. Feldman

Le résumé est dans le titre : le bronzage est-il un comportement addictif ?

Background: Recent studies have identified reinforcing properties associated with tanning and suggest a possible physiologic mechanism and addiction driving tanning behavior.

Objective: This article attempts to synthesize the existing literature on tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations.

Methods: We investigated a variety of substance dependence models to define what constitutes dependence/addiction and to determine how current studies on tanning meet these criteria.

Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine Volume 25 Issue 1, Pages 12 – 19

Population reference intervals for minimal erythemal doses in monochromator phototesting

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Population reference intervals for minimal erythemal doses in monochromator phototesting - Harry Moseley, Hannah Naasan, Robert S. Dawe, Julie Woods & James Ferguson

La MED est mesurée à l’aide d’un monochromateur est utile lorsque les patients ont une photosensibilité anormale. Le but de cette étude a été de mesurer la MED de sujets normaux à différentes longueurs d’onde et de la comparer à d’anciens contrôles.

Background/purpose: Monochromator phototesting, to measure the minimal erythemal dose (MED), is useful in investigating patients with abnormal photosensitivity at different wavelengths. It relies on access to reliable, up-to-date data on the MED in normal individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine MED in normal subjects at different wavebands and compare these with historical controls.

Methods: The study group consisted of 415 normal individuals (349 males) of skin types I–III living in Scotland. Age range was 18–83 years (median 31 years). Phototesting was performed using a monochromator at prescribed wavelengths from 295 to 430 nm. All calibrations were traceable to the National Physical Laboratory. Quality systems were maintained to ISO 9001 and ISO 17025 international standards and ultraviolet (UV) measurements accredited by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS).

Results: The 95% reference interval (99% confidence interval for this) ranged from 6.8 to 27 mJ/cm2 at 295 nm to >82 000 mJ/cm2 at 430 nm.

Conclusions: Results of the current investigation are broadly in agreement with values published 25 years ago by this centre. This validates the phototesting process based on the use of monochromators with attention to careful control of conditions during UV exposure and MED reading, supported by dosimetric calibration.

Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine Volume 25 Issue 1, Pages 8 – 11

Oral isotretinoin in photoaging: clinical and histopathological evidence of efficacy of an off-label indication

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Oral isotretinoin in photoaging: clinical and histopathological evidence of efficacy of an off-label indication - RM Rabello-Fonseca, DR Azulay, RR Luiz, CA Mandarim-de-Lacerda, T Cuzzi, M Manela-Azulay

Ce travail vise à déterminer de façon scientifique l’effet d’un traitement à l’ isotrétinoine sur le photovieillissement cutané.

Background : Despite evidences of the beneficial clinical effects of oral isotretinoin in the treatment of cutaneous photoaging, scientific evidences are still scarce, mainly supported by histopathological and morphometric studies.

Objectives : To analyse possible clinical and morphological changes resulting from the treatment of photoaging with oral isotretinoin.

Methods : Thirty female patients, aged 40 to 55 years, phototypes II to IV, with moderate to severe photoaging were randomly assigned to two groups of 15 each. Group I (G I) patients were treated with 10 mg of isotretinoin and group II (G II) with 20 mg of oral isotretinoin thrice a week for 3 months. Skin biopsies were performed before and after the end of therapy, and the various sections were submitted to specific staining for collagen and elastic fibres. To analyse the changes, morphometric studies were performed, and the results obtained were analysed by Student's t-test (paired and non-paired). Clinical results of therapy regarding texture, colouring and aspect of the wrinkles were assessed by both physician and patient.

Results : The increase in the amount of collagen fibres was statistically significant with both dosage regimens (mean, 37.8%, increasing to 44.4%; P = 0.029 with the 10-mg dosage; and mean, 36.6%, increasing to 41.9%; P = 0.01 with the 20-mg dosage). A pattern pointing toward a decrease in the number of elastic fibres was found (mean, 15.3–12%; P = 0.014 with the 10-mg dosage; mean, 15.5–14%; P = 0.125 with the 20-mg dosage). Additionally, there was improvement in the general aspect of the skin, regarding texture, wrinkles depth and skin coloration.

Limitations : Despite ethical considerations, a lack of a control group using placebo may render the results less accurate.

Conclusion : Low dosages of oral isotretinoin seem to be an effective therapeutic option for cutaneous photoaging.

Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology Volume 23 Issue 2, Pages 115 – 123

Melanoma risk factors include insecticides and occupational exposures

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Melanoma risk factors include insecticides and occupational exposures

Craig G. Burkhart, Craig N. Burkhart, Sylvania, Ohio and Chapel Hill

No Abstract

International Journal of Dermatology Volume 48 Issue 2, Pages 210

Overview of cosmetic dermatological approach for photoaging - Y. Funasaka

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Overview of cosmetic dermatological approach for photoaging - Y. Funasaka

Le processus de vieillissement photochimique de la peau est résumé ainsi que les traitements permettant d’y remédier. Les mécanismes de ces traitements ont été étudiés.

Photoaging could be induced by accumulated DNA damage on skin cells. Photoaged skin has such characteristics as a nodular leathery surface with fine and coarse wrinkles, blotches and yellowing, dryness, and teleangiectasia, and finally skin cancer formation. For this condition, chemical peeling, iontophoresis, laser and phototherapy are used with some improvement, especially in wrinkles and pigmentary uniformity. Now the mechanisms of these treatments on photoaging have been studied. Glycolic acid may act on skin cells via keratinocytes and activate the cytokine network, which results in the remodeling of tissue construct and elimination of pigment. Heat generated by non-ablative laser or phototherapy might induce heat shock proteins which induce new collagen formation, and eliminate oxidized abnormal materials. This type of research is expected to disclose the cellular and molecular mechanisms of photoaging, and to lead to the establishment of further effective photoaging treatment.

International Journal of Cosmetic Science Volume 31 Issue 1, Pages 75 - publié également dans : Journal of Cosmetic Chemists (SCCJ), Vol. 42, No. 1, pp.1-6, 2008

Spectral uniformity: a new index of broad spectrum (UVA) protection

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Spectral uniformity: a new index of broad spectrum (UVA) protection - B. Diffey

Afin de mieux intégrer la protection dans l’UVA, Brian Diffey introduit un nouveau paramètre qu’il nomme « indice d’uniformité spectrale ».

Despite the wide acceptance of in vitro assay for the determination of the spectral absorbance of a sunscreen product, we find that different authorities are recommending different summary metrics of this spectral profile to express the UVA or broad spectrum, protection offered by topical sunscreens. Regrettably, the situation that now prevails is not ideal and the option for rationalizing the situation in the interests of consumer-focussed international harmonization is either the adoption of one of the existing metrics or universal acceptance of a new metric for expressing broad spectrum (UVA) protection. There may be greater harmony in adopting the second proposal and so I introduce here a new metric, which I term the spectral uniformity index, for consideration by the international sunscreen community. It is shown that this new index is aligned to the fundamental requirement of a topical sunscreen to provide a flat spectral profile, is simple to calculate and conceptually easy to understand, and correlates strongly with existing indices.

International Journal of Cosmetic Science Volume 31 Issue 1, Pages 63 – 68

Evaluation of the effect of Thai breadfruit's heartwood extract on melanogenesis-inhibitory and antioxidation activities

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Evaluation of the effect of Thai breadfruit's heartwood extract on melanogenesis-inhibitory and antioxidation activities - P. Donsing, N. Limpeanchob and J. Viyoch

Cette étude a pour but de déterminer l’effet antioxydant et inhibiteur de la mélanogénèse d’un extrait de fruit thailandais. L’étude a montré qu’il pouvait intervenir en tant que blanchissant de la peau dans un produit cosmétique.

The aim of this study was to clarify the melanogenesis-inhibitory and antioxidant activity of Thai breadfruit's heartwood extract for application as a skin-lightening agent. The heartwood of breadfruit (Artocarpus incisus) grown in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand, was extracted by using diethyl ether or methanol. The amount of artocarpin, a major component of A. incisus extract, was determined by using the HPLC method. The artocarpin content found in ether ex tract was 45.19 ± 0.45% w/w, whereas that in methanol extract was 19.61 ± 0.05% w/w. The ether extract was then evaluated for tyrosinase-inhibitory, melanogenesis-inhibitory, and antioxidant activities. The tyrosinase-inhibitory activity was tested in vitro by monitoring the inhibition of the extract against the formation of DOPAchrome by tyrosinase enzyme. The results showed that the tyrosinase-inhibitory activity of the extract was in a dose-dependent manner. The obtained IC50 value was 10.26 ± 3.04 μg mL-1, while kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor, provided an IC50 of 7.89 ± 0.18 μg mL-1. Melanocyte B16F1 melanoma cells (ATCC No. CRL-6323) were then used for determination of the melanogenesis-inhibitory activity of the extract, comparing it to hydroquinone, kojic acid, and purified artocarpin. The amount of melanin produced by the cells was monitored by measuring an absorbence at 490 nm. The obtained results indicated that A. incisus extract at a concentration of 2 to 25 μg mL-1 was able to decrease the melanin production of the melanocyte B16F1 cells. The obtained micrograph also confirmed that the extract did not change the cell morphology but reduced the melanin content by inhibiting melanin synthesis, whereas the purified artocarpin at a concentration of 4.5 μg mL-1 caused changes in cell morphology. Additionally, the extract exhibited antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner at an EC50 of 169.53 ± 9.73 μg mL-1, according to DPPH assay. The obtained results indicated that the ether extract of A. incisus's heartwood has the potential of acting as a skin-lightening agent for application in cosmetics.

International Journal of Cosmetic Science Volume 31 Issue 1, Pages 72  - publié également dans : J. Cosmet. Sci., 59, 41–58 (January/February 2008)

Image analysis of skin colour using independent component analysis and its application to melanin pigmentation analysis

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Image analysis of skin colour using independent component analysis and its application to melanin pigmentation analysis - Nobutoshi Ojima

La couleur de la peau est généralement mesurée en utilisant les coordonnées trichromatiques : Lab. Des chercheurs ont extraits de la peau la mélanine, l’hémoglobine ; une image de la peau peut être réalisée en tenant compte de pigmentation particulière tel les grains de beauté. Il est ainsi possible de tenir compte de variations saisonnières, de pigmentation lièe à l’âge ou à l’utilisation de produits blanchissants.

Skin colour has conventionally been analyzed by using colorimetric values such as CIE 1976 L*a*b*. Recently, several researchers have reported on extraction techniques of melanin and hemoglobin components from skin colour information. One of our recent studies on a practical skin colour analysis technique is introduced for evaluating melanin pigmentation, such as freckles. The skin colour image is analyzed and separated into hemoglobin, melanin and shading components using the independent component analysis. We propose practical measurement systems and describe the results on the seasonal changes and age-related changes of pigmentations, as well as the changes after use of whitening essence.

International Journal of Cosmetic Science Volume 31 Issue 1, Pages 69 – publié également dans : Japanese Society of Cosmetic Chemists (SCCJ), Volume 41, No 3, 2007

The α-melanocyte stimulating hormone-related tripeptide K(D)PT stimulates human hair follicle pigmentation in situ under proinflammatory conditions

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The α-melanocyte stimulating hormone-related tripeptide K(D)PT stimulates human hair follicle pigmentation in situ under proinflammatory conditions - K.C. Meyer, T. Brzoska, C. Abels† and R. Paus

L’a-MSH possède des propriétés antiinflammatoire et cytoprotectrice et cette hormone stimule la mélanogénèse. Il a été montré que cette hormone peut avoir un effet antigrisonnement des cheveux sous des condition pro-inflammatoires.

Background : a-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (a -MSH) is a well-tolerated immunomodulator with cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects that is known to stimulate melanogenesis and proliferation of follicular melanocytes. As human hair follicles (HFs) locally synthesize a -MSH, pharmacologically more easily handled a -MSH-related tripeptides, such as K(D)PT, may imitate this endogenous regulation, and may show a favourable side-effect profile on clinical use.

Objectives : To investigate the effect of the synthetic, a -MSH-related peptide K(D)PT [which is identical to interleukin (IL)-1β193–195] on melanogenesis in human anagen HFs, under normal and proinflammatory growth conditions.

Methods Normal human anagen VI scalp HFs were microdissected and organ cultured with different concentrations of K(D)PT with or without coadministration of a proinflammatory, catagen-inducing stimulus, interferon (INF)-γ. Masson–Fontana histochemistry and NKI/beteb immunohistochemistry were employed to assess changes in the degree of human HF pigmentation and melanocyte dendricity.

Results : As confirmed by quantitative (immuno-)histomorphometry, compared with controls, K(D)PT alone did not affect human HF pigmentation in organ culture. However, in the presence of a strong, prototypic proinflammatory stimulus (IFN-γ), K(D)PT significantly stimulated HF melanin content and melanocyte dendrite formation in situ.

Conclusions : The IL-1β- and a -MSH-related tripeptide, K(D)PT, displays interesting hair pigmentation-stimulatory activities under proinflammatory conditions. These might become exploitable for innovative antigreying strategies, notably in postinflammatory poliosis (regrowth of white hair, e.g. during recovery from alopecia areata), where no effective clinical therapy is yet available.

British Journal of Dermatology Volume 160 Issue 2, Pages 433 – 437

Acute exposure of human skin to ultraviolet or infrared radiation or heat stimuli increases mast cell numbers and tryptase expression in human skin in vivo

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Acute exposure of human skin to ultraviolet or infrared radiation or heat stimuli increases mast cell numbers and tryptase expression in human skin in vivo

M-S. Kim, Y.K. Kim, D.H. Lee, J.E. Seo, K.H. Cho, H.C. Eun and J.H. Chung

Le nombre de mastocytes diminue avec l’âge ; ces cellules peuvent être activées sous rayonnement UV, IR et la chaleur. Ces résultats expliqueraient la présence importante de mastocytes en périphérie des zones cutanées exposées au soleil.

Background : Mast cells are key effector cells in diverse immunological and pathological processes. It is still unclear why there are more mast cells at peripheral and sun-exposed skin sites than at sun-protected sites.

Objectives : To investigate changes in mast cell numbers associated with natural ageing and photoageing, and to observe the effects of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) radiation and heat on the prevalence of mast cells and tryptase expression in human skin in vivo.

Methods : Sun-exposed and sun-protected skin samples were taken from individuals in four different age groups. UV, IR or heat-treated buttock skin of young volunteers was also obtained. Mast cells were quantified by immunohistochemical staining of mast cell-specific tryptase and chymase. The expression of tryptase was determined by Western blotting.

Results : Both sun-exposed and sun-protected skin showed a gradual decrease in total mast cells (MCTotal) number with ageing. The number of mast cells in sun-exposed skin was significantly higher than that in sun-protected skin. After UV irradiation (2 minimal erythema doses), MCTotal and mast cells expressing tryptase and chymase were significantly increased at 24 and 48 h postirradiation. After IR irradiation (3 minimal heating doses) and heat treatment (43 °C for 90 min), MCTotal reached peak induction at 8 and 48 h after stimulation, respectively. Tryptase expression was also clearly upregulated by UV, IR and heat.

Conclusions : Our data demonstrate that mast cell numbers decreased with ageing in human skin. Also, mast cells may be activated and recruited by UV, IR and heat. These findings should further our understanding of the reason for the high prevalence of mast cells at peripheral sun-exposed skin sites.

British Journal of Dermatology Volume 160 Issue 2, Pages 393 – 402

Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy

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Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy.

C.A. Morton, K.E. McKenna and L.E. Rhodes. The photodynamic therapy topic (TPT) is of an effectiveness proven on the actinic keratosis and surface carcinome basocellulaire but not on carcinome spinocellulaire. The TPT can reduce the number of new lesions for the high-risk patients and thus to have a preventive role. Long-term studies shows that the treatment is sure.

British Journal of Dermatology – Vol.159, Issue 6, Pages 1245 – 1266

UV-induced DNA damage initiates release of MMP-1 in human skin

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UV-induced DNA damage initiates release of MMP-1 in human skin.

Kelly K. Dong, Niusha Damaghi, Stephanie D. Picart , Nelli G. Markova, Kei Obayashi, Yuri Okano, Hitoshi Masaki, Susanne Grether-Beck, Jean Krutmann, Kenneth A. Smiles and Daniel B. Yarosh. The destruction of collagen is a mark of photovieillissement whose principal enzyme responsible for the destruction is the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). Irradiation UV of the kératinocytes plays an important part in the destruction of collagen because it generates soluble mediators who cause the release of MMP-1 by the fibroblasts. This induction of MMP-1 can be reduced if the kératinocytes are treated by enzymes of repair of the ADN (T4 endonuclease V or UV endonuclease).

Experimental Dermatology Vol.17, Issue 12, Pages 1037 - 1044

Ultraviolet A induces transport of compatible organic osmolytes

 in human dermal fibroblasts

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Ultraviolet A induces transport of compatible organic osmolytes in human dermal fibroblasts.

Ulrich Warskulat , Stefanie Brookmann, Ingo Felsner, Heidi Brenden, Susanne Grether-Beck and Dieter Häussinger. Organic osmolytes such as betain, the myo-inositol or the taurine are implied in cellular protection. The article shows that the accumulation of taurine is due to the response of the fibroblasts to irradiation UVA and that the taurine inhibits the expression of Interleukine-6 induced by the UVA of 40%.

Experimental Dermatology Vol.17, Issue 12, Pages 1031 - 1036

Photodynamic therapy: treatment of choice for actinic cheilitis ?

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Photodynamic therapy: treatment of choice for actinic cheilitis?

R. Rossi, G. Bani Assad, G. Buggiani & T. Lotti. This article joined the precedent in the technique of treatment where the TPT uses successfully, a méthylester acid aminolevulic like agent photosensitizing topic.

Dermatologic Therapy Vol.21, Issue 5, Pages 412 - 415

Effects of Coccoloba uvifera L. on UV-stimulated melanocytes

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Effects of Coccoloba uvifera L. on UV-stimulated melanocytes.

Jéssica Eleonora Pedroso Sanches Silveira, Maria del Carmen Velazquez Pereda, Samara Eberlin, Gustavo Campos Dieamant & Luiz Claudio Di Stasi. Sur des cultures de mélanocytes humains in-vitro, un extrait de Coccoloba uvifera a montré des propriétés antioxydante et antityrosinase et a également inhibé la production d’interleukine-1α (IL-1α), de tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) et de α-MSH sous irradiation UV. Cette étude montre donc un effet photoprotecteur de cet extrait.

Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine Vol.24, Issue 6, Pages 308 - 313

A study to determine the efficacy of a novel handheld light-emitting

diode device in the treatment of photoaged skin

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A study to determine the efficacy of a novel handheld light-emitting diode device in the treatment of photoaged skin.

Neil S Sadick, MANDELEVIUM. A study on 22 volunteers irradiated by a red light and near infra-red proved an effective method to improve the cutaneous state (wrinkles) of mature skins. This study was made under dermatological control and the rate of satisfaction of the testers was 74%.

Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Vol., Issue 4, Pages 263 - 267

Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

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Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing.

Mette Bodekær, Annesofie Faurschou, Peter Alshede Philipsen & Hans Christian Wulf. The study showed that the application of a solar product container either an organic filter or an inorganic filter reduced the erythema caused by the UVB. After 8 a.m., the solar product brings approximately 43% more of initial protection, this being able to simulate what occurs in one day from beach.

Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine Vol.24, Issue 6, Pages 296 - 300

Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin CSun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

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Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet-induced photodamage in human skin.

Christian Oresajo, PhD (L'Oreal), Thomas Stephens, PhD, Peter D Hino, MANDELEVIUM, Robert Mr. Law, MANDELEVIUM, Margarita Yatskayer, ms, Peter Foltis, ms, Sreekumar Plundered, PhD, & Sheldon R Pinnell, MANDELEVIUM. A study was made on ten subjects to which a mixture of vitamin C, acid ferulic and phloretin was applied: a significant protective role was highlighted. It is proposed to combine this antioxydant mixture with solar filters for an optimal photoprotection of the skin.

Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Vol., Issue 4, Pages 290 - 297

Algorithm for in vitro Sun Protection Factor based on transmission spectrum

measurement with concomitant evaluation of photostability

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Algorithm for in vitro Sun Protection Factor based on transmission spectrum measurement with concomitant evaluation of photostability.

Yoshimasa Miura, Yoshihiro Takiguchi, Masayuki Shirao, Sadaki Takata, Takeshi Yanagida, Hiroshi Fukui, Masako Naganuma and Masato Hatao. The photostability of the solar filters can have an important impact to the measure of the SPF in-vitro especially for the products having a strong SPF. In the method suggested here, a tube photomultiplier with high sensitivity UV was used in combination with a specific algorithm.

Photochemistry and Photobiology Vol.84, Issue 6, Pages 1569 - 1575 article 10

Sunbed radiation provokes cutaneous vitamin D synthesis in humans

a randomized controlled trial

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Sunbed radiation provokes cutaneous vitamin D synthesis in humans, a randomized controlled trial.

Elisabeth Thieden, Henrik L. Jørgensen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Peter A. Philipsen and Hans Christian Wulf this study was to examine the effect of lamps of bronzing which emit mainly in the UVA (0,5 or 1,4% UVB) on the rate of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D): this one is increased depend on the amount of UVA, with however a plate. The use of the lamps of bronzing as source of vitamin A however is not recommended due to the risk of cancer and side effects.

Photochemistry and Photobiology Vol.84, Issue 6, Pages 1487 - 1492

Sensitivity to ultraviolet B is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma

in a Mediterranean population

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Sensitivity to ultraviolet B is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma in a Mediterranean population: results from an Italian case–control study.

A. Chiarugi, M. Ceroti, D. Palli, G. Cevenini†, M. Guarrera and P. Carli

Parmi les facteurs de risque de mélanome figurent la sensibilité au soleil, la couleur des yeux et de la peau et le nombre de grains de beauté. Une étude sur 143 patients atteints de mélanomes et 102 patients servant de témoins a montré que la mesure de la couleur de la peau ainsi que le MED sont des facteurs significatifs de risque de mélanome.

Clinical and Experimental Dermatology - Volume 34 Issue 1, Pages 8 - 15

Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolaevulinic acid, dimethylsulfoxide and curettage in basal cell carcinoma

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Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolaevulinic acid, dimethylsulfoxide and curettage in basal cell carcinoma:

A 6-year clinical and histological follow-up - E Christensen, E Skogvoll, T Viset, T Warloe,

S Sundstrøm

The study undertaken here aims at appreciating the long-term treatment by the dynamic phototherapy of patients reached of carcinomes basocellulaires. On 44 patients having undergone the treatment, 39 were cured after 3 months, 2 died. After 6 years, the treatment was judged good with excellent in 90% of the cases.

Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology - Volume 23 Issue 1, Pages 58 – 66

Reflectance Confocal Microscopy for In Vivo Skin Imaging

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Reflectance Confocal Microscopy for In Vivo Skin Imaging.

Piergiacomo Calzavara-Pinton, Caterina Longo, Marina Venturini, Raffaella Sala and Giovanni Pellacani.

Reflective microscopy confocale in the infra-red close relation was used as a noninvasive technique of examination of the skin. The article makes a point detailed on progress of this technique which makes it possible to identify the malignant tumours of kératinocytes and mélanocytes

Photochemistry and Photobiology - Volume 84 Issue 6, Pages 1421 – 1430

Measurement of Ultraviolet Exposure in Epidemiological Studies of Skin and Skin Cancers

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Measurement of Ultraviolet Exposure in Epidemiological Studies of Skin and Skin Cancers.

Scott Drayton Worswick, Myles Cockburn and David Peng

The comprehension of the role of UV in cutaneous cancers S `improves, it is thus important to progress as far as the exposure to UV; it is the goal of this article. Several techniques are analyzed: microtopography, histology, the study of genes and the spectroscopy.

Photochemistry and Photobiology - Volume 84 Issue 6, Pages 1462 – 1472

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